When I have promised my patients help or improvement by means

When I have promised my patients help or improvement by means of the cathartictreatment I have often been faced by this objection: ‘Why, you tell me yourself that myillness is probably connected with my circumstances and the events of my life. Youcannot alter these in any way. How do you propose to help me then?’ And I have beenable to make this reply: ‘No doubt fate would find it easier than I do to relieve you ofyour illness. But you will be able to convince yourself that much will be gained if wesucceed in transforming your hysterical misery into common unhappiness.” –SigmundFeud­For all the similarities in their thought, Freud and Nietzsche have starkly different viewon the possibility of human happiness. For his part, Feud, medical doctor and self­avowed man of science, celebrates the advances of technology and the power of his ownpsychoanalytic method; but he is quick to add, however, that the human condition is onethat is necessarily unhappy. Nietzsche, on the other hand, sees the human condition asone that is full of hope, calls on us to becoming “dancing stars,” and names his ownphilosophical project a “joyful science.”Describe why and how Freud’s theories commit him to his characteristically pessimisticview of the human condition. Then, consider how Nietzsche would critique Freud’sviews and why he himself is instead so optimistic about the possibility of our futurehappiness.

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