What is GIS and how is it related to Transportation Economics

Week 7:Read Chapter 19 and 20In this week’s lecture, we can begin to understand the importance ofinnovation. There are many aspects of science and technology that we’veused to enhance our ability to be more efficient in many aspects of ourbusinesses. In healthcare industry, we are now able to operate on patientsto remove cancerous tumors that may be otherwise deadly. Soundtechnology, right? In construction industry, we’re able to now build houses inless than a month with treated cement, concrete and steel reinforcements.Sound technology, right? In law enforcement, we’re able to track DNAsample of “perps” in order to be more accurate during convictions, etc.In transportation and logistics, we’re now able to avoid unnecessary wastesof time in traffic congestions. We also able to plot and plan ourinfrastructures well in advance so that these delays are better controlled. Sothe use of GPS satellites has yielded GIS system. Be careful with yourdefinitions. GPS (global positioning satellites) use triangulated data topinpoint location of any data “X”. There were 6 low earth orbiting satellitesin the 1990s that were used for this purpose until NASA introduced their“selective availability” so that enemy forces can’t find some sensitivelocations in the US (Parkinson, 1996). Today, there are about 30 of them(NAVSTAR) and people can use them for fishing, skiing, jogging, drivinghiking etc – eg Garmin®. However GIS uses non-real-time data to representman-made facilities. You can’t quite call it a map, and you can’t quite call ita tracking sensor. The system simply denotes objects both on the surface ofthe earth and underneath as well. Now that you have these information, whywould it be a great asset for our troops to have GIS capability as opposed toGPS? Think logistics.GIS is also used in engineering to show buried public utility lines likeelectrical lines, water lines, sewer lines, fiber optics lines, phone/datacommunication lines, gas lines (abandoned and active), storm water lines,roads, facilities etc. The idea is to graphically represent these utilities andfacilities (aka “as-built” drawings) so that programming and planning offuture constructions is embedded and/or recorded. Some of the advantagesof GIS system include the fact that dig permits can be issued to potentialworkers and construction mangers prior to start of work in their respectiveareas. That way, workers are not electrocuted if they cut a live high voltagecables. Also it helps to prevent damages to waterlines that could flood thecity or cut off a section of water users etc. Now can you name threedisadvantages of GIS?I don’t know if you’ve noticed: but when you’re driving on a highway,sometimes under the bridge, you could see a black cable that runs acrossthe road, from one side to the other. That cable is used by DoT to track thenumber of passes a road can sustain before repair and maintenance will berequired. Also in GIS system, these data are usually transcribed to forecastfuture traffic patterns in a designated trunk or roadway. Today, theseinformation are used by GPS systems in our cars to predict trafficcongestions so drivers can avoid certain roads if they were in a hurry. Canyou tell me what else these GIS information can predict?Consequently, in other aspects of trade and logistics, there are efforts wehave made to streamline trade agreements, check our economic downfall(stimulus) and protect our national parks and forests. This week, we need topay attention to some real-time current affairs to see how far we’ve comeand how far we’ll be going in terms of transportation logistics technologyand innovation.This is the forum post instructions, minimum 250 word: This is due byThursday:Topic 1 – GISWhat is GIS and how is it related to Transportation Economics? What can GISdo to help transportation economists to save money? What impact mightGIS have on future projects in transportation?Is on chapter 19 of the same book of the last one.Sinha, K. C., & Labi, S. (2008). Transportation decision making, principles of projectevaluation and programming. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.Part 2:Assignment Instructions: Due Saturday.Please upload a Word document using APA format for this assignment (seeattached for the template). Where applicable, you must show yourderivations, analysis and how you obtained the responses/answers. Use titlepage, in-text citations, references, appropriate font size, double spaces, etcRubric CategoryPoint Val. YourPaper meets the specified pages or word length,Points20demonstrates thorough understanding of thereading assignment, reflects critical thought, andrelates to course content and/or industryapplications.Length required _ 5-7 pages____, __ pages___turned in.Ideas and concepts are supported through40resources and/or personal experiences. Workexhibits truthful and verifiable statements andmathematical formulae and derivations usedwhere applicable.Posts are free of writing errors (syntax, grammar,40etc.)Try to avoid using needless fillers i.e. that. I didnot count those as errors this time. Also, free ofAPA format errors.___ Errors – 1-4 =.9 5-7= .8, 8-10= .7, 11-12= .6,13-14= .5, 15-17= .4, 18= .3, 19= .2, 20= .1, 21or more 0.Total100where appropriate. The assignment will be graded for content, APAformatting, met deadlines for submission. See the following rubric below.1- Today’s urban transportation planning process is being impacted by thePresident’s Stimulus Plan. High speed rail is one such option to congestionalong the highways of urban areas. These projects have two sides to them.There are those who support high speed rail and those who do not supporthigh speed rail. You have been chosen to not support the Stimulus Plan foruse of high speed rail to ease congestion. Your task is to help decisionmakers make up their minds. So, you are now on the opposing side. Discusshow this Stimulus Plan for high speed rail will not work. You can use anyreference. But, you must also present your opinion based on facts and data,not just because you don’t like it. You will have to provide evidence to backup what you believe is a bad idea. (25 points)2- Most (97 percent) roads and streets in the United States are under thejurisdiction of State and local governments. The Federal jurisdiction is mainlylimited to National Parks, National Forests, and other government-ownedland. Discuss what issues and problems might be common between theFederal jurisdiction and the State and Local governments, and what issuesand problems might be unique to the Federal government compared to theState and local governments. List the common and unique attributes andprovide a brief explanation to support your choice. Use references in APAformat and also offer your own opinion on what you think of these issues andproblems. (25 points)3- The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) went into effect onJanuary 1, 1994. This sweeping agreement is designed to open the bordersseparating Canada, Mexico, and the United States to the free exchange ofgoods and services. There are many pros and cons of NAFTA that haveemerged since 1994. The future of NAFTA is in the wind these days. It mayfail or succeed for the next ten years. You job is to help Congress and otherdecision makers to decide what course of action they should take regardingNAFTA’s future. You are to take the side that NAFTA is a bad businessinvestment; you are to represent the “con” side of the argument. So, discusswhy you would defeat or destroy NAFTA or morph it from its current state tosome other new state. (25 points)4- In early 1990s with a second wave of low-cost carriers (LCCs), which led tothe second period of strong traffic growth from early 1993 through early2000, Southwest Airlines arguably provided the blueprint for U.S. Between2006 and 2009 a fuel crisis happened and a recession for business and thetransportation industry. What is the impact today on LCC’s in order to becompetitive in this economy coming on the heels of this recession? (25points)

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