the historical evolution of attitudes toward psychological disorders

#1When looking at the historical evolution of attitudes toward psychological disorders, general paresis is a disease with great significance because it:a. provided the first evidence of a psychological disorder with a biological cause.b. showed how psychological factors can produce actual physical abnormalities.c. provided the first evidence supporting the vulnerability-stress model.d. demonstrated how psychological factors can create physical symptoms that have no identifiable biological cause.#2In the vulnerability-stress model of psychological disorders, vulnerabilities:a. are only biological factors.b. are only biological or psychological factors.c. are only environmental factors.d. can be biological, psychological, or environmental factors.#3______________ is a strong and intense fear that is evoked in response to a particular situation.a. A phobiab. Generalized anxiety disorderc. A somatoform disorderd. Panic disorder#4Poor coping skills and the lack of a social support network are examples of ______________ that can _____________ a person’s resistance to stress and the negative effects that stress can cause.a. protective factors; increaseb. vulnerability factors; decreasec. problem-focused coping; increased. emotion-focused coping; decrease#5One of the primary differences between major depression and dysthymia is that:a. dysthymia has more intense depressive symptoms than major depression does.b. dysthymia is chronic and more long-term than major depression.c. major depression includes physical symptoms, whereas dysthymia does not.d. major depression includes mostly cognitive symptoms, whereas dysthymia consists of more motivational symptoms.#6Jim often has the fear that he has left the gas stove on in his house and that because of this his house will burn down and kill his family. As a result, he frequently checks and rechecks the knobs on his stove all day long and often in the middle of the night. In this example, Jim’sthoughtsabout his house burning down would best be considered as an example of a(n):a. compulsion.b. situational phobia.c. mania.d. obsession.#7The primary goal of _________________ is to transfer the primary focus of treatment for patients suffering from extreme and chronic mental disorders from the hospital to the community.a. social skills trainingb. deinstitutionalizationc. interpersonal therapyd. behavior modification#8Somatoform disorders involve :a. anxiety reactions to bodily sensations like increased heart rate and breathlessness.b. physical complaints with no known biological cause.c. depressive reactions to stressful life events.d. development of alternative personalities in response to trauma.#9Which of the following is considered to be one of the dissociative disorders?a. conversion disorderb. bipolar disorderc. psychogenic fugued. schizophrenia#10Tricyclics, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were all mentioned as drug treatments for which of the following disorders?a. anxietyb. schizophreniac. depressiond. somatoform disorders#11A key difference between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder is that:a. bipolar disorder includes manic symptoms whereas major depressive disorder does not.b. major depressive disorder includes manic symptoms whereas bipolar disorder does not.c. bipolar disorder includes depressive symptoms whereas major depressive disorder does not.d. major depressive disorder includes depressive symptoms whereas bipolar disorder does not.#12According to ____________________, people become depressed when they expect bad things to occur and assume that there is nothing they can do to prevent them.a. learned helplessness theoryb. the depressive cognitive triadc. childhood loss/rejection theoryd. the depressive attributional pattern#13_________________ is a psychological disorder that involves severe disturbances in thinking, speech, perception, emotion, and behavior and is described by the text as being the most serious and puzzling psychological disorder.a. Schizophreniab. Dissociative identity disorderc. Conversion disorderd. Clinical depression#14Jack is a very impulsive 18-year old who is often getting into trouble at school. He destroys school property and embarrasses and even injures his fellow classmates, but feels little anxiety or guilt for what he does. Though he is socially skilled, he does not have any close friendships or relationships. It is most likely that Jack would be diagnosed with:a. paranoid personality disorder.b. antisocial personality disorder.c. borderline personality disorder.d. dependent personality disorder.#15A long-term disorder characterized by extreme unresponsiveness to others, poor communication skills, and highly repetitive and rigid behavior patterns is known as:a. psychosis.b. dementia.c. autism.d. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.#16Though they can be quite different from one another, the basic goal of all therapies is toa. identity important unconscious factors and change people’s personalities for the better.b. allow for the expression of previously denied or suppressed emotions.c. put people in touch with their innate tendencies for growth so that they can gain more personal freedom in their lives.d. change maladaptive patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving so that people can lead happier lives.#17A therapist asks her client to begin sharing the various thoughts and feelings that are currently in her awareness. This continues for several minutes, with the client commenting on the changing process of what is appearing in her conscious mind. This therapist is using the therapeutic technique known as:a. analyzing the transference.b. free association.c. random reporting.d. insight.#18Research studies suggest that there is a genetic predisposition for anxiety disorders, and it has been suggested that this vulnerability may take the form of a:a. nervous system that overreacts to perceived threats.b. nervous system that under-reacts to perceived threats.c. chronically over-aroused nervous system.d. chronically under-aroused nervous system.#19A problem with the deinstitutionalization movement has beena. many patients need to be re-admitted.b. communities do not have the resources to care for patients.c. many patients become homeless.d. all of these#20____________ is said to occur when a therapy client responds to his therapist as if the therapist was an important figure from his past.a. Transferenceb. Resistancec. Wish fulfillmentd. Insight#21Someone who is afraid to leave their house because they are afraid of being in public places would most likely be diagnosed as having:a. generalized anxiety disorder.b. agoraphobia.c. environmental phobia.d. social phobia.#22Studies showing that most of the therapeutic improvement of clients occurs by the 26th session of psychotherapy make a strong argument that:a. traditional long-term psychoanalysis yields significantly better patient outcomes than brief psychodynamic therapy does.b. there is little empirical evidence supporting the psychoanalytic concept of resistance.c. interpretations do not appear to be necessary for psychoanalytic therapy to be effective.d. brief psychodynamic therapy is a viable and effective alternative to traditional psychoanalysis.#23Research studies of depressed individuals have indicated that they tend to attribute:a. positive outcomes to themselves and negative outcomes to external causes.b. negative outcomes to themselves and positive outcomes to external causes.c. both positive and negative outcomes to themselves.d. both positive and negative outcomes to external causes.#24All of the following were mentioned by Carl Rogers as important and essential therapist characteristics EXCEPT:a. empathy.b. self-consistency.c. unconditional positive regard.d. genuineness.#25_______________ are false beliefs that are maintained in the face of contradictory evidence and they play a central role in ______________.a. Hallucinations; dissociative identity disorderb. Delusions; schizophreniac. Helpless thoughts; anxietyd. Catastrophic thoughts; depression#26In Albert Ellis’s ABCD model of emotional disturbance, the A stands for the:a. antecedent.b. activating event.c. automatic thoughts.d. aversive situation.#27A type of questionnaire called a ________________ asks people about such things as 1) whether a stressful event occurred, 2) whether their interpretation of the event was positive or negative, and 3) whether the event was a major event or a daily hassle.a. transactional stress scale.b. cognitive appraisal questionnaire.c. life event scale.d. polygraph.#28The text defines abnormal behavior as containing all of the following elements EXCEPT:a. it is psychologically determined.b. it is personally distressing.c. it is personally dysfunctional.d. it is culturally deviant.#29Which of the following lists the six stages of the transtheoretical model in the proper order?a. contemplation, precontemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, terminationb. precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, terminationc. preparation, precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, terminationd. precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, maintenance, action, termination#30Token economies are often used in _______________ and they attempt to modify behavior by using _______________.a. exposure therapy; negative reinforcementb. systematic desensitization; relaxation trainingc. aversion therapy; punishmentd. behavior modification; positive reinforcement#31Flashbacks in dreams and personal guilt about surviving fatal catastrophes are both common features of:a. posttraumatic stress disorder.b. schizophrenia.c. panic disorder.d. obsessive-compulsive disorder.#32One of the side effects of antipsychotic medications is the disorder called tardive dyskinesia. The symptoms of this disorder include:a. intense anxiety, nausea, and restlessness.b. dramatic shifts in personality.c. grotesque movements of the face and tongue.d. sweating, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction.#33All of the following would be considered examples of positive symptoms of schizophrenia EXCEPT:a. delusionsb. hallucinationsc. disordered speechd. flat affect#34The main tenet of the vulnerability-stress model is thata. everyone is vulnerable to stress.b. everyone has some degree of vulnerability to developing a psychological disorder if they are exposed to enough stress.c. vulnerability is inversely related to stress.d. none of these#35People who held the demonological perspective on psychological disorders would sometimes treat abnormal behaviors by chiseling a small hole in the head of the individual in an attempt to release the evil spirit trapped inside. This procedure was called:a. a lobotomy.b. trephination.c. primitive psychological surgery.d. spirit elimination.#36One of the problems associated with deinstitutionalization is what is called _________________, where the majority of hospital admissions involve people who have previously been hospitalized.a. the deterioration effectb. psychological regressionc. the revolving door phenomenond. spontaneous remission#37The three stages of Hans Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are:a. alarm, resistance, and resolution.b. activation, plateau, and exhaustion.c. activation, resistance, and recovery.d. alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.#38Which of the following provides the best description of the Type A personality?a. competitive, hostile, and demandingb. sociable, nice, and emotionally inhibitedc. aggressive, friendly, and pressed for timed. relaxed, agreeable, and experiences minimal time pressure#39In a 30-year study of “resilient” or “invulnerable” children like Priscilla, who was discussed in the text, one factor that appeared to be common to all children who survived and thrived in very difficult situations was having:a. at least one person who believed in them and provided social support.b. a very strong and resilient immune system.c. a strong, optimistic personality style.d. learned both problem- and emotion-focused coping skills at a young age.#40In the case of the unusual East Indian hook-hanging ritual discussed in the text, it is most likely that the specific _____________ associated with the ritual transformed the person’s __________.a. religious meanings; interpretations of the painb. religious meanings; pain receptor cellsc. ceremonial herbs; interpretations of the paind. ceremonial herbs; pain receptor cells

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