Psyc 305 Exam #1 Study Guide
PSYC 305 Exam #1 Study Guide Defense Mechanisms: help ego deal with anxiety (Ego cannot handle the conflicts between ID and superego. ) * Rationalism: plausible, but false reason for action * “I needed to break up with my boyfriend for his own good. ” * Sublimation: socially productive displacement * “I’ll just go to the gym. ” * Projection: ascribing own impulses to others * “He hates me. ” * Denial: refusal to acknowledge the impulse * “I don’t hate my ex. ” * Intellectualization: clear, undistorted recognition of impulse over explained and with emotion removed * “I always have trouble with relationships” Repression: impulses or experiences kept unconscious * “I feel nothing towards him. ” * Isolation: cutting off thoughts related to occurrence * “I never think about him. ” * Identification: merging ones identity with someone else * “I want to be just like that bully. ” * Reaction Formation: transform impulse to the opposite * “I love my father so much. ” (LOVE/HATE) * Displacement: impulses toward another activity * “What a bad day, I hate my boss and my job, punch hole in wall. ” Freud’s Psychosexual Stages (oral – anal – phallic – latency – Genital) * Oral * Birth to age 1 Focus on mouth and feeding * All ID, all the time * From passive > active * Oral fixation * Passive, overly optimistic, dependent * “Experiencing through the mouth” * Traits: passive dependent, oral aggressive, oral erotic * Anal * Sphincter muscle * Age 1 – 3 * Experiencing through elimination and retention * Excreting – toilet training, ego development * Anal fixation – orderliness, parsimony and simplicity, obstinacy and stubbornness * Traits: passive aggressive, paranoid, compulsive, messy/disorganized, stubborn/stingy * Phallic * Age 3 – 5 * Focus on genitals and masturbation Successful passage leads to development of the superego * Solid understanding of the opposite sex * Fixation – immature super ego, pore sex-role typing, sexuality issues * Genitals * Seen in noticing genitals and sex differences, special attention to opposite sex-parent * Narcissistic, arrogant, vane * Oedipus conflict * Boys develop sexual feelings for their mothers and want to replace their dad * Castration anxiety: fear that dad will cut off son’s penis as revenge * Resolved when boy decides to follow in dads footsteps * Electra Conflict * Penis envy: girls feel inferior when they realize they do not have a enis, blame mom * Decides to seduce dad for revenge * Seduction hypothesis: real incest between father-daughter. Revised: fantasy only * Conflict resolved when girl learns to indentify with mother * Latency * Age 5 – puberty * Nothing much going on –ID, ego, superego already developed * Genital * Starts at puberty * Sexual satisfaction from opposite sex * Development of adult sexuality * Proper resolution if no past fixations Freud’s Topographic Model (iceberg) 3 components 1. Conscious mind: aware, accept, identify 2. Unconscious mind: can be brought to awareness readily 3. Preconscious mind: repressed. * ID Unconscious * Preverbal * Source of our instincts and passions * Infant * Driven by pleasure principle * “Innocent child that doesn’t know any better” * Primary process * First to develop * Libido: sexual energy * Eros: life instinct * Thanatos: death instinct * Balances sex and aggression * Satisfy urges, reduces tension * Seeks pleasure * Ego * The mostly conscious part of the mind * Balances or goes between id, superego and reality * Grows out of the id (ego is shown first even though id exists first) * Face the real world * Understands reality * Decision maker between id and superego * Secondary process/future Second to develop * Brings unity to personality * Reality principle * Superego * Internalization of parental images and rules * Includes “thou shalts” (ego ideal) and “thou shalt nots” (conscience) * Rules and restrictions of parents/society * Third to develop * Rules and morals of society * Guilty * Phrenology: theory that personality characteristics could be determined by reading the bumps on the skull. (Franz gall) * Localized thinking, feeling and personality in the brain * Attempted to be scientific in explaining characteristic behavior * Fostered scientific debate about the nature and causes of personality Person Metaphors (as a…) * Animal: * Respond to reward, punishment * Can be prisoner of its biology * Scientist: * Seek the truth * Try to understand the world by making/testing theories * Actor: * Idea of life as drama (roles) * Writing/acting out scripts * Backstage/onstage * Pathology as role confusion * Computer: * Hardware & software * Data * Programs needing to be debugged * Input > output * Machine: * Causes & effects * Snake biting then developing a fear of snakes * System (ecosystem) * Interconnecting living parts * Self-regulation toward homeostasis * Little changes can have big effects Homeostatic level * Avoid anxiety/fear * Pilot * The self * Being in the drivers seat, steering towards goals * Personality: 1. The stylistic aspects of how we think, feel and act and motives implied by these that make us agreeable or to live with (Dollinger). 2. The underlying causes within the person of individual behavior and experience (Cloninger). * 3 D’s 1. Description: how do we describe people? a. Traits > measures characteristics on continuous scales factors > measures an individuals characteristics based on a group of related traits types > putting people into categories 2.
Dynamics: How do our personalities influence our behaviors and motivation? 3. Development: what determines our personality? * Idiographic: looks at the characteristics of a single individual * Individual, one person, different traits * Nomothetic: comparing one person to another * Group of people, one trait in different people * Assessment 1. Interviews (value interactive and subjective approach) a. Unstructured i. Clinical Judgment b. Structured ii. Training, reliability/consistency c. Both should involve empathy, warmth and concern 2. Questionnaires (large sample, need good norms, value efficiency and objectivity) d.
General or specific e. Obvious or subtly f. Logically keyed (theory) g. Empirically keyed (what items correlate with) 3. Objectivity: Keeps things standardized and eliminate interviewer bias 4. Subjectivity: Assess your “feel” for who the person is and the informers reliability in answering. * Reliability: the consistency of response to a psychological assessment (standardization) * Consistency/stability * Questionnaire producing consistent results from time one to time two * Validity: the extent to which an assessment device measures what it is intended to measure * Really measures what it claims to measure Predictive Validity: how well a test score predicts future behavior * Does a test predict a behavior that the researcher accept as a criterion for the construct being measured * Content Validity: How well the individual items relate to measured construct (face validity) * Test – retest reliability, alternate forms * Correlation * An observational method * Looks for associations between two psychological constructs * Social support and depression * Yields a number representing the degree that two constructs are associated with each other * Coefficient Pearson’s r statistic * Range -1 to +1 * -1 = perfect inverse relationship * 0 = no mathematical relationship * +1 = perfect positive relationship * Limitations * Can’t determine cause and effect relationships * Can only conclude that one or more variable are associated with each other * Good enough if goal is prediction only * Independent Variables: the variables that are manipulated. * Dependent Variable: not manipulated but measured for possible change effects.