Pathophysiology

Mr. Gray, a 65-year-old man, was in an automobile accident in which he suffered a concussion. Soon after he was released, he noticed what he described as a “gray spot” in his field of vision. At first he ignored it, thinking it would go away, but the spot seemed to darken and spread over his visual field. He didn’t report any pain with the problem. On calling his physician, he was advised to go to the nearest hospital immediately. A detached retina was diagnosed.After treatment, he regained most of his normal sight back. Five years later, he began having problems again. The central area of his visual field was becoming blurred, and he was losing his depth perception. An initial eye examination revealed neovascularization in both eyes.Question 1Relate the patient history and circumstances of the injury and the signs and symptoms related to the pathophysiology of this condition.Answers may vary.Question 2Discuss the treatments available for the patient.Answers may vary.Question 3Relate the symptoms and signs to those of macular degeneration.Answers may vary.Question 4Discuss the treatment available and the prognosis for recovering his normal vision.Answers may vary.Mr. Quinn, age 64 years, developed a severe headache several hours ago that has not responded to acetaminophen. Now his speech is slurred, and his right arm and the right side of his face feel numb. He is very anxious and is transported to the hospital. Mr. Quinn has a history of smoking and arteriosclerosis, and there is family history of CVA and diabetes. Assessment at the hospital indicated weakness on the right side, including facial asymmetry and a blood pressure of 220/110 Hg mm. A CT scan showed damaged tissue on the left side of the brain, and an angiogram indicated narrowing of the carotid arteries and middle cerebral arteries, with occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery.Question 1Discuss the pathophysiology related to CVA due to thrombus vs. embolus. Describe the stages in the development of an atheroma.Answers may vary.Question 2Explain the predisposing factors in this case, and relate Mr. Quinn’s initial signs to the pathological changes.Answers may vary.Question 3Discuss the treatments available after first aid for stroke patients and the patient’s prognosis.Mr. Nimmo, age 66, has noticed excessive fatigue, muscle aches, and weakness in his legs for some time. His hands were shaking slightly, although his wife reported that the shaking appeared to stop when he fell asleep. Some unintentional head movements were also apparent. He remembers that his grandfather died in his mid-60s after suffering for years from a condition with similar symptoms. After several tests and the elimination of some other neuromuscular conditions, a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease was made for Mr. Nimmo.Question 1Discuss the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease and how it differs from other neuromuscular conditions affecting older adults.Answers may vary.Question 2Discuss the usual progression of the disease as the pathophysiology develops further. Indicate additional manifestations that will be noticeable.Answers may vary.Question 3Describe the complications that frequently develop, including the rationale for each and the early indications of each problem.Answers may vary.Question 4Discuss the treatments available to this patient.Answers may vary.Include introduction and conclusion. Turnitin score must be below 20%. Please do not include questions in the essay.

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