Most of the freshwater on Earth is trapped in polar ice caps and glaciers

Chapter 13 – Water Resources – Review
Questions

Section A.
Mark A if a statement is true or
B if it is false.

1. Only
3% of the Earth’s water is freshwater.

2. Most
of the freshwater on Earth is trapped in polar ice caps and glaciers.

3. Twenty-five percent of all freshwater is found in lakes, rivers, and the atmosphere.

4. Watersheds
contribute both water and nutrients to freshwater bodies.

5. Pollutants
can build up more in standing water than in running water.

6. The formation and
maintenance of a thermocline in a lake can lead to fish deaths due to a lack of
oxygen.

7. The
pelagic zone contains the greatest variety of life in the oceans.

8. Oxygen content,
speed of water, and temperature all influence the kinds of organisms found in a
body of water.

9. About
95% of the freshwater in the U.S.
is contained in rivers, lakes and streams.

10. Aquifers that formed
long ago and are not being recharged to any appreciable extent are said to
contain fossil water.

11. Confined aquifers are
at much higher risk of pollution than are unconfined aquifers.

12. Aquifers
are not susceptible to pollution because they generally recharge quickly.

13. Groundwater supplies
the needs of 50% of the U.S.
population and is the major source of drinking water in about two-thirds of the
states.

14. Water
provides practical, aesthetic, and symbolic importance in our lives.

15. Worldwide, the human
activity that consumes more water than any other is agriculture.

16. Nonconsumptive water
uses remove water; use it; and return it, usually in some altered form, to its
original source.

17. At
present, each American consumes an average of 100 gallons of water per day.
18. Approximately 55
countries with a combined population of over one billion people cannot provide
the minimum water standard for basic needs — 15 gallons per person, per day.

19. Although heat can
have some effect on aquatic organisms, it is usually benign and therefore only
a minor pollutant.

20. The
ocean is so large that it would be impossible to do any damage to it.

Section B.
Multiple Choice – Choose the one answer that best completes each
statement.

21. ___________
is freshwater found underground in porous rock strata.
a. Epilimnion
b. Effluent
c. Groundwater
d. Runoff
e. Hypolimmion

22. An
aquifer is
a. a
saltwater pool
b. water
stored in a polar ice cap
c. a
large, flowing surface water supply
d. a
freshwater stream flowing downhill
e. a
water-saturated underground zone

23. ____________,
or severe overdrafts, can lead to depletion, often lowering the water table so
drastically that further extraction is no longer feasible.
a. Water
mining
b. Desalinization
c. Thermoclines
d. Watersheds
e. Subsidence

24. Biological
oxygen demand (BOD) refers to
a. bacteria
that never use oxygen
b. suspended
organic matter in water
c. decomposed
aquatic organisms
d. the
amount of oxygen needed to decompose organic matter in water
e. pollutants
in the water that require oxygen in order to remain toxic

25. Water
from a sewage plant that is deemed “acceptable” and therefore leaves
the plant is known as
a. runoff
b. sludge
c. effluent
d. thermocline
e. freshwater

26. High
amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen in water often result in
a. clean
waterways
b. flooding
c. lower
water levels
d. algal
blooms
e. subsidence

27. The
continuous cycling of water is known as the ___________ cycle.
a. hydrologic
b. rehydration
c. krebs
d. evaporation
e. nutrient

28. Most
of the freshwater on Earth is found in
a. the
atmosphere
b. polar
ice caps
c. reservoirs
d. aquifers
e. lakes
and rivers

29. Of
the following, which description is not characteristic of an oligotrophic lake?
a. low
nutrients
b. rocky
shores and bottom
c. high
oxygen content
d. high
productivity
e. cold
and deep

30. Of
the following, which description is not characteristic of a eutrophic lake?
a. high
oxygen content
b. warm
and shallow
c. sandy,
muddy bottom
d. high
nutrients
e. high
productivity

31. In
a lake, light does not penetrate the
a. profundal
zone
b. limnetic
zone
c. littoral
zone
d. euphotic
zone
e. pelagic
zone

32. The
seasonal process by which cold, oxygen-poor water is mixed with warm,
oxygen-rich water is known as
a. thermocline
b. turnover
c. thermal
stratification
d. eutrophy
e. oligotrophy

33. A
body of water with high biological oxygen demand (BOD) is high in
a. carbon
dioxide
b. dissolved
oxygen
c. organic
material
d. dissolved
oxygen and organic material
e. sediment

34. Primary
treatment of wastewater refers to processes that are designed to remove
a. pollutants
b. disease
causing organisms
c. sludge
d. undissolved
solids
e. dissolved
solids

35. The
Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974
a. Set
maximum contaminant levels for pollutants that could affect human health
b. Addressed
concerns about acid rain
c. Established
water treatment and water pollution stipulations for industries
d. All
of the above
e. None
of the above

36. The
Clean Water Act of 1972
a. Set
maximum contaminant levels for pollutants that could affect human health
b. Addressed
specific concerns about acid rain
c. Established
water treatment and water pollution stipulations for industries
d. All
of the above
e. None
of the above

37. Since
1950, U.S.
groundwater withdrawal has increased
a. 100
percent
b. 200
percent
c. 300
percent
d. 400
percent
e. 500
percent

38. A
combined septic system is used to treat
a. Groundwater
b. Drinking
water
c. Irrigation
water
d. Waste
water
e. All
of the above

39. Eutrophication,
the nutrient-enrichment of a body of water, is often accompanied by
a. Sediments
b. Toxic
substances
c. Organic
matter
d. Disease-causing
wastes
e. All
of the above

40. Water
scarcity is most severe in
a. The
Middle East
b. The
Southwest United States
c. The
Southeast United States
d. Asia
e. The
African Sahel

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