GED212 Introduction to Philosophy Text: Discovering Philosophy

GED212Introduction to PhilosophyText:Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio Edition2nd Edition , 2008ISBN: 13: 9780132302128Publisher:Thomas I. WhitePrentice Hall925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 9270112/14Final ExaminationAuthors:Phone: 714-547-9625Fax: 714-547-5777All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmittedin any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without writtenpermission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotationin review.Copyright © 2014 by California Coast UniversityIntroduction to PhilosophyFinal ExaminationMultiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)1. Metaphysics is the study of right and wrong.A. TrueB. False2. Logic is the study of reason and arguments.A. TrueB. False3. Philosophy studies life’s most basic questions.A. TrueB. False4. Philosophical questions are primarily subjective in nature.A. TrueB. False5. The value of studying philosophy is that it develops your analytical abilitiesand your capacity for abstract thought.A. TrueB. False6. _______________ is the study of how we live together in communities, anddeals with problems of harmonizing freedom and obligation.A.B.C.D.Social philosophySocial interactionPolitical philosophyNone of the above7. ________________is what Aristotle referred to as the “first philosophy,” andstudies the most basic issues.A.B.C.D.EthicsLogicMetaphysicsSocial philosophy1Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination8. The word philosophy derives from two ancient Greek words: philia, whichmeans love, and sophia, which means wisdom.A. TrueB. False9. A(n)______ fallacy involves an argument’s logical structure.A.B.C.D.InformalFormalPremiseconclusion10. A(n) ________ fallacy involves an argument’s subject matter.A.B.C.D.InformalFormalPremiseconclusion11. The two parts of an argument are _____.A.B.C.D.Introduction and conclusionPremises and conclusionPros and consTruths and conclusion12. Another word for the facts, evidence, theories, or ideas that allegedly lead toan argument’s claim is premises.A. TrueB. False13. If it’s sunny, Jennifer goes surfing. Jennifer went surfing today. Therefore,it must have been sunny. This is an excellent illustration of affirming theconsequent, a formal fallacy.A. TrueB. False2Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination14. “A square has four sides” is a necessary and sufficient condition for defininga square.A. TrueB. False15. The potions riddle in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone is an excellentexample of logical thinking.A. TrueB. False16. If someone is a student at Hogwart’s, then he or she is studying witchcraftand wizardry. Neville Longbottom is a student at Hogwart’s. Therefore, Neville Longbottom is studying witchcraft and wizardry. This is an excellent example of Modus Ponens, or the Asserting Rule.A. TrueB. False17. The _____is the main conscious element of the personality and tries tomediate between the unrestrained desires of the superego and the punishingdemands of the id for moral perfection.A.B.C.D.EgoSoulLogicNone of the above18. The inner feeling of freedom that we all have supports the theory of _____.A.B.C.D.FatalismDeterminismFree willNone of the above19. The ancient Greek story of Oedipus, who, no matter how hard he tries, cannotavoid his tragic destiny, is an example of the theory of _____.A.B.C.D.FatalismDeterminismFree willNone of the above3Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination20. The idea that there is one special person somewhere in the world that is yourdestiny to meet and fall in love with is an example of ______.A.B.C.D.FatalismDeterminismFree willNone of the above21. A theory that claims that all human behavior is the result of scientificallyidentifiable natural forces is an example of _____.A.B.C.D.FatalismDeterminismFree willNone of the above22. B.F. Skinner believes that human freedom is impossible.A. TrueB. False23. Freudianism claims that the human personality has neither conscious norunconscious dimensions.A. TrueB. False24. A “Freudian slip” is an example of how the unconscious can determine whatwe say.A. TrueB. False25. Ellis believes that irrational beliefs are the greatest threat to our freedom.A. TrueB. False26. _____is the position that holds that in any circumstance, we genuinely havemore than one option from which to choose.A.B.C.D.4IndeterminismExistentialismPragmatismFree willIntroduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination27. ______ claims that freedom is so inescapable that it is sometimes uncomfortable, which is why Sartre wrote that we are “condemned to be free.”A.B.C.D.IndeterminismExistentialismPragmatismFree will28. William James is the most important representative of _____, the school ofthought that claims that what is true is what “works.”A.B.C.D.IndeterminismExistentialismPragmatismFree will29. Sartre accepts the idea that existence precedes essence, that is, the theorythat our choices determine our nature.A. TrueB. False30. The theory of free will implies about responsibility that because our actionsresult from our own choices, we are fully responsible for them.A. TrueB. False31. Aristotle would agree most strongly with which of the following statement:The more we understand people, the more we know how little responsibilitythey have for their actions.A. TrueB. False32. According to Ellis, irrational beliefs prove that determinism is correct.A. TrueB. False5Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination33. Which of the following comes closest to the main ideas underlying a deontological approach to ethics?A.B.C.D.do your dutysurvival of the fittestno harm, no foulthere is virtue in suffering34. Utilitarianism _____.A. is a deontological ethical theory that uses a scientific, empirical basis forethicsB. is a teleological ethical theory that bases ethics on private philosophicalinsightC. is a deontological ethical theory that uses pleasure and notions like “thegreatest good of the greatest number” as standards for judging the moralityof actionsD. is a teleological ethical theory that uses pleasure and notions like “the greatest good of the greatest number” as standards for judging the morality ofactions35. The strengths of Bentham’s Hedonistic Calculus are it effectively measuresmany of the consequences of an action and it does not prejudge the questionof the morality of an action.A. TrueB. False36. _____ revised Bentham’s ideas by arguing for the importance of differencesin the type, kind, or quality of pleasures and pains that follow from actions.A.B.C.D.KantMillPlatoScorates37. The most basic concept of Kant’s ethics is_____.A.B.C.D.6TruthVirtueSpiritualityDutyIntroduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination38. Kant calls his basic moral rule the categorical truth.A. TrueB. False39. The ultimate drawback to a teleological approach to ethics is that it allowsfor the idea that “the ends justify the means.”A. TrueB. False40. In a religious approach to ethics, faith and the authority of sacred texts havethe final word.A. TrueB. False41. A healthy soul is characterized generally by _____.A. the ability to distinguish right from wrong without being blinded by fear,greed, or the like; strength of will, freedom, self-controlB. divine grace and the guarantee of eternal lifeC. a belief in the importance of suffering and the sense of moral superiority thatgoes along with thatD. a belief in the teachings of Gyges and the ethical insights that flow from that42. Socrates was unusual as a philosopher because _____.A.B.C.D.he spent his life getting richno other philosopher has ever challenged his ideashe dictated all of his ideas to another philosopher, Platohe never wrote anything about his teachings43. In the story of Gyges’ ring, a shepherd finds a ring that can make himinvisible.A. TrueB. False7Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination44. Plato thinks that we are made up of three parts, physical, emotional, andintellectual.A. TrueB. False45. Consider the case of a woman who is robbed and beaten. The robberescapes punishment. Socrates would say the robber has been most hurt bythis crime.A. TrueB. False46. Socrates illustrates his ideas about the ethical life and the unethical life withthe image of two wine jars.A. TrueB. False47. In the Platonic dialogue entitled the Gorgiras, the character Callicles arguesthat best life is one of the uncontrolled and totally self-interested pursuit ofpleasure.A. TrueB. False48. Plato believes that in the unhealthy soul there is an inappropriate balanceamong the three parts.A. TrueB. False49. Thales believes that the basic nature of all things, the first principle of reality,is ________.A.B.C.D.8TimeOur sense of selfOur bodiesWaterIntroduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination50. Anaximander’s first principle of reality is the Unlimited.A. TrueB. False51. Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes and other thinkers such as Heraclitus andParmenides are known as Post-SocraticsA. TrueB. False52. Plato explains the divided line theory with the allegory of a caveA. TrueB. False53. Berkeley maintains that object no not exist apart from being perceived.A. TrueB. False54. Berkeley claims that God constantly perceives reality, and thus gives it ultimate existence.A. TrueB. False55. An Anthropomorphic account of reality explains things by appealing to cultural terms.A. TrueB. False56. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as empiricism claims thatknowledge comes from, or arises in, our minds.A. TrueB. False9Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination57. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as rationalism claims thatknowledge comes from sensory experiences.A. TrueB. False58. Hume thinks that to the extent that knowledge is possible, it ultimatelydepends on___________.A.B.C.D.The sensesThe mindThe soulOur logic59. Hume uses the example of a billiard ball hitting another to question theconcept of causality.A. TrueB. False60. Gilbert Ryle uses the term ___________ to describe an error in logical categories, otherwise known as “comparing apples to oranges.”A.B.C.D.InformalIncorrect analogyCategory falseCategory mistake61. “A triangle has three sides” is an example of an analytic statement.A. TrueB. False62. Descartes uses the example of a piece of melting wax to claim that thesenses are the only dependable source of knowledge.A. TrueB. False10Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination63. Kant tried to synthesize the epistemological views of the rationalists andempiricists.A. TrueB. False64. An argument from design, claims that the universe is so intelligently craftedthat it must have a creator.A. TrueB. False65. The problem of evil is taken up in the Bible in the book of job.A. TrueB. False66. Aquinas defines _________ as potentialities becoming actualized.A.B.C.D.Our moralsOur actionsMotionOur sense of self67. An onotological argument concerning God’s existence claims that by merelycontemplating the notion of God as “that-than-which-nothing-greater-canbe-thought,” we become aware that God must exist.A. TrueB. False68. David Hume claims the fear is the basis of religion, that people “accept religion on emotional grounds.”A. TrueB. False11Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination69. David Hume dismisses such arguments about God’s existence from causalitywith the claim that the material universe itself might be a necessarily existentbeing, which means there is no need for a “first cause.”A. TrueB. False70. Anselm’s discussion of the possibility of God’s existence relies on empiricalevidence alone.A. TrueB. False71. Anselm’s argument is essentially Aristotelian because it believes that thequestion of Gods existence can be settled by studying the workings of nature.A. TrueB. False72. Hegel’s label for the dynamic and conflict-filled process that dominates reality is dialectic, the three elements of which are thesis, antithesis, synthesis.A. TrueB. False73. Marx calls the type of work that characterizes capitalism_____________.A.B.C.D.PunishmentForced laborUnethicalAlienated labor74. Karma is an essentially deterministic principle which is, paradoxically, basedon the idea of individual free choice.A. TrueB. False12Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination75. The Supreme Buddha was a prince from fifth century B.C. Nepal who becamea great spiritual leader.A. TrueB. False76. _______________ is the Buddhist idea that because the task of spiritual development is too complex to accomplish in one lifetime, we live many lives.A.B.C.D.KarmaOur destinyRebirthFree will77. In Western culture, religion and philosophy thoroughly intermix, and in theEast, they do just the same.A. TrueB. False78. The Buddhist conception of the self is the source of the way the self is understood in Western philosophy.A. TrueB. False79. Modern natural science has a close relationship to the school of philosophycalled Empiricism.A. TrueB. False80. According to Einstein, _________ will be perceived the same whether theobserver is moving or not.A.B.C.D.Space-time continuumString theoryThe speed of lightTheory of Relativity13Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination81. Einstein’s theory about the ______implies that reality has four dimensions,not three.A.B.C.D.Space-time continuumString theoryThe speed of lightTheory of Relativity82. _______________is based on the claim that the ultimate building blocks ofreality aren’t subatomic particles, but even smaller vibrating one-dimensionalstrings of energy.A.B.C.D.Space-time continuumString theoryThe speed of lightTheory of Relativity83. The world of subatomic particles spawned a separate branch of physics calledquantum mechanics.A. TrueB. False84. Imagine two twins. One gets onto a space ship and travels close to the speedof light for what the ship’s clocks record as a few months. The other twin remains on earth. When the space ship returns, there will be no difference intheir ages.A. TrueB. False85. Imagine that you are standing still, while a friend of yours is on a train heading north. You see two lightning bolts strike the ground at the same instant– one to the north and the other to the south. Einstein would say that yourfriend on the train experiences things differently, seeing the northern boltstrike before the southern bolt.A. TrueB. False14Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination86. Unlike Newton, Einstein believes that space is constant and absolute andcannot “bend.”A. TrueB. False87. The main psychological research on epistemological differences betweenmen and women focuses on different developmental stages that we gothrough in progressing from a simple to a mature understanding of the concept of _____________.A.B.C.D.TruthSelf-actualizationUnderstandingKnowledge88. In ______________ “conventional” morality, including stages three and four,we understand right and wrong in terms of laws and the expectations ofothers.A.B.C.D.Kohlberg’sPerry’sBelenky’sGilligan’s89. If we are at Perry’s second stage, “unacceptable multiplicity,” and we heartwo opposite accounts of the causes of the Reformation, we would probablythink that one, but only one, of the two accounts is true.A. TrueB. False90. In Belenky’s first stage, “____________,” knowledge is what some externalauthority says it is.A.B.C.D.Constructed knowledgeReceived knowledgeSubjective knowledgeProcedural knowledge15Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination91. In Belenky’s final stage, “_______________,” believing is more important thandoubting.A.B.C.D.Constructed knowledgeReceived knowledgeSubjective knowledgeProcedural knowledge92. If we combine the two perspectives represented by Kohlberg and Gilligan,the problem of the moral justification of an action becomes more difficultand involved.A. TrueB. False93. Sex refers to societal roles, whereas gender refers to biology.A. TrueB. False94. “Human” and “person” are different, but related, ideas. “Human” is a biological concept, while “person” is a _____________ concept.A.B.C.D.TheologicalPhilosophicalScientificEmotional95. Dolphins’ curiosity about humans can be traced back at least to ancient__________.A.B.C.D.RomeChinaGreeceNone of the above96. The one dolphin sense that acts as both their eyes and ears in the water islike the modern human sonar system onboard submarines.A. TrueB. False16Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination97. Dolphins have a body temperature of _________ degrees.A.B.C.D.98.696.890.292.298. As far as the criteria for “personhood” are concerned, dolphins probably dopossess “awareness” because the fact that they can be so easily trainedshows that they are aware of the external world and able to interact with it.A. TrueB. False99. The fact that dolphins can perform leaps, dives and flips on cue from trainers: prove that dolphins are not intelligent enough to be persons, becausepersons would not perform such menial behaviors.A. TrueB. False100. In terms of the criteria for personhood developed in this chapter, dolphins,on balance, did pretty well.A.B.TrueFalse17

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