Choose 1 (one) of the following pair of competing claims

Choose 1 (one) of the following pair of competing claims.Carefully reconstruct and critically evaluate the most importantarguments the relevant philosophers use to support their claimsand/or critique that of the other. Who gets the better of the dispute,and why?When reconstructing, make sure: to focus only on the one specificclaim indicated; to use your own words as much as possible; toclarify any technical, controversial, or ambiguous terms; toexplicate the precise meaning of the claim if necessary; to clearlystate each of the premises or reasons used by the author; to explainthe support for each of the premises or reasons; and to explain anymissing premises or reasons, and their support, that you havesupplied.The point of a critical evaluation is to reach an overall assessmentof the cogency of an argument. Metaphorically, one can think ofthe process as poking and prodding both the premises and thereasoning supporting the conclusion with potential problems orobjections, in order to see whether the argument will stand up toreasoned scrutiny. Make sure attend to the validity or strength ofthe reasoning, the clarity of the terms and concepts, and the truthof the premises. It is also important to consider plausible orpotential objections to your own evaluation and show exactly howsuch concerns may be answered.The essay should be no longer than 1500 words. Put a word counton your paper. Indicate the numbers of the claim the paper treats.The essays must not be handwritten. The assignment is TuesdayDecember 16, by 1:00 p.m., in my office, Wheatley 05-007.1.Hardin claims that there is a “ratchet effect” (862) betweenpopulation growth and food aid that creates an inherently“pejoristic” (863) system. Pojman claims that the relationshipbetween food aid and population growth is not inherentlypejoristic.2.Singer claims that “if it is in our power to prevent something badfrom happening, without thereby sacrificing anything ofcomparable moral importance, we ought, morally, to do it” (889).Pojman claims that this principle is problematic, even when it isput forward in a weaker, qualified form.3.Hardin claims that we should think of “the problem of the survivalof the human species” (855) in terms of “the ethics of a lifeboat”(857). Murdoch & Oaten claim that Hardin’s lifeboat metaphor is“worthless—indeed detrimental—in discussions of foodpopulation questions” (876).4.Pojman claims that his “[m]oderate moral theory recognizesspecial responsibilities to family, friends, and neighbors” (910).Singer claims that “we cannot discriminate against someonemerely because he is far away from us (or we are far way fromhim)” (889).

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