By 112 Study Guide

Silence of the Bees: • How do bees communicate? Bees communicate through dance (the waggle dance). A methodic combination of buzzing, moving the behind in a figure-eight fashion that informs other bees about pollen/ food that is found in a particular area. • Why are bees so important to the U. S. agriculture industry? Honeybees are the most important pollinator on the planet. They pollinate crops, which in turn creates food to eat. What percentage of the industry do bees account for? They account for one-third (more than 30%) of the food that is produced in America.
They pollinate at least 100 of our most important crops (cotton, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, etc. ) • What are some natural dangers to the bee industry? Natural dangers to the bee industry would be natural disasters (wildfires, hurricanes, tornados), wild animals (mainly bears) • What is considered adequate pollination? • What is CCD? Colony Collapse Disorder. This is a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive/colony abruptly disappear. When did it become a noticeable problem? Winter 2006 is when the issue was noticed, but it wasn’t until the following spring that it was named CCD and was being researched heavily. What are characteristics of CCD versus other hive disturbances/illnesses? The bees are completely vanishing, as opposed to a mite infestation where the bees would be crawling on the ground. Also, other insects leave infected hives untouched • What types of crops are affected by CCD? A lot of crops are affected, all the crops that are pollinated by bees! In the video, blueberries, oranges, apples, cantaloupes (travel 55 hundred miles per year). • Where do we get new bee colonies in the U. S. for industry use? We import bees from Australia.
The Australian bees are the bees that could have potentially carried CCD to the US. • What are factors thought to possibly contribute to CCD? Pesticides (which impair bees ability to learn causing them to forget their way back to the hive), cell phones interfere with be navigation, mites, or a pathogen causing this rare occurrence are all factors that scientists have thought to contribute to CCD • If CCD continues, what would happen to the agricultural industry? Ultimately the agricultural business would die, food expenses would rise, unless we are willing to use hand pollination. What if any crops would be left? The crops pollinated by the environment (wind or rain) Examples are corn wheat, rooted crops (potatoes, carrots, etc. ) • What is the approximate lifep of worker bees? The approximate lifep of a worker bee is 28-35 days • What sex are worker and drone bees? Worker bees are female (collect pollen and pollinate other flowers) and drone bees are male (sole purpose= mate with queen) • What is HFCS? High Fructose Corn Syrup • According to the case study, what impact might HFCS have on CCD? If not stored properly, substances within HFCS will form HMF (hydroxymethlfurfural). According to the article used in the case study, what major issues/concerns were addressed by the authors? The first issue is how commercial workers are storing the HFCS in transportation. Also, how the apples will get pollinated if the bees keep dying/disappearing. • What are the advantages to the commercial use of HFCS? It is easy to store if properly stored, stable shelf life (will hold for a long period of time), and cheap (because we have a lot of it; it is easy to find and purchase). It is used to sweeten foods. Earthworms: • Which side of the worm did we cut into? We cut into the dorsal side of the worm (the back).

The dorsal side of the worm was smooth and darker than the ventral side (the underside) • Know the purpose of all the organs we discussed. Dorsal side is dark and feels smooth Ventral side is lighter and has a rough feel caused by setae Setae – Bristles that aid in providing traction for movement Metameres are the body segments that are internally separated by septa Clitellum – the light-colored cylindrical structure close to one end of the worm -a glandular organ that produces mucus for copulation -secretes the cocoon into which eggs are deposited “Head” or Anterior end of worm is the one closest to the clitellum – at he tip is the mouth Posterior or Caudal – anus (where waste is removed) is located here. Oviducts –small openings located on the ventral side where eggs emerge; followed by sperm ducts (located on segments 14 and 15) Cerebral Ganglion (“brain”) – located at the cranial tip of the worm Aortic Arches (heart) – 5 around the esophagus; pump blood in a closed circulatory system • What is coelomic fluid and why is it important for earthworms? The coelomic fluid is located in the coelom (body cavity) that acts as a hydrostatic skeleton to support the body and aid in movement.
What is the typhlosole? The typhlosole is the fold or ridge in the intestine that increases efficiency. • Why do we dissect Earthworms? We dissect earthworms because they are a great introductory specimen. They lack a skeleton which makes dissection easier. They have some organs of more highly evolved organisms such as a closed circulatory system and simple digestive system. • What type of circulatory system do earthworms have? Earthworms have a closed circulatory system with hemoglobin and amebocytes. They are the simplest organism with a closed system.
Blood is pumped by a heart through vessels and doesn’t fill the body cavity. • What do earthworms eat? Earthworms eat organic matter such as leaf, litter, animal waste, etc. • How do earthworms obtain oxygen? Earthworms must absorb oxygen via diffusion through their moist skin because they don’t have any respiratory organs. How does their habitat affect this? Earthworms are burrowers found within rich soil which stays moist, aiding in the earthworms obtaining of oxygen. If earthworms dry out or the soil dries out, they die (suffocate) because oxygen can’t diffuse into their skin.
These creatures have adapted by doing two things: 1) slowing down bodily functions during dry spells to conserve water 2) they can lose up to 70% of their body water before dying in this condition. • How do earthworms reproduce? Earthworms reproduce sexually even though they are hermaphrodites. During mating, both worms exchange sperm to fertilize the eggs. This is an advantage because it creates more genetic diversity. • Be able to identify structures in drawings like those in the handout. [pic] [pic] [pic] • Know directional terms. Posterior – towards the caudal end (foot/tail)
Anterior – towards the forward end (head) Dorsal – back side of the animal Ventral – bottom side of worm; tummy side • Know the definitions of the external & internal structures we discussed while dissecting the earthworm. EXTERNAL • Dorsal side is dark and feels smooth • Ventral side is lighter and has a rough feel caused by setae • Setae – Bristles that aid in providing traction for movement • Metameres are the body segments that are internally separated by septa • Clitellum – the light-colored cylindrical structure close to one end of the worm o a glandular organ that produces mucus for copulation secretes the cocoon into which eggs are deposited • “Head” or Anterior end of worm is the one closest to the clitellum – at the tip is the mouth • Posterior or Caudal – anus (where waste is removed) is located here. • Oviducts –small openings located on the ventral side where eggs emerge; followed by sperm ducts (located on segments 14 and 15) INTERNAL Reproductive System: • Know the path taken by sperm to exit the male body during ejaculation. Be able to explain including all glands and secretions on the path.
At the time of ejaculation sperm leaves the epididymis via the vas deferens. As it goes through the vas deferens to the urethra it picks up the following fluids in order: nutritive fluid from the seminal vesicles ( milky alkaline fluid from the prostate ( mucous fluid for lubrication from the Bulbourethral gland/Cowper’s gland. • Why are so many sperm produced? So many sperm are created because not all of the sperm make it to the egg. Many die trying to fight their way through the acidity/stickiness of the female reproductive organs.
Sperm must work extremely hard to reach the egg and once it gets to the egg it must continue its rough journey breaking through the zona (hard outer shell of the egg) • Know the definitions of male and female reproductive terms discussed in class. MALE= penis Penis – composed of 3 cylinders of erectile tissue: o Corpus cavernosa – 2 cylinders on dorsal part of the penis o Corpus Spongiosum – surrounds the urethra; distal end is enlarged to form the glans penis Scrotum – thin membranous sac that houses testes. Testes o Produce approx. 200-300 million sperm/ 24hrs in each testes o Approx. 700 ft. f seminiferous tubules – 80% of testes. o Essential male organs o Proper function is dependent on temperature Epididymis: o Located over the top back portions of the testis o Store immature sperm Vas Deferens – Tube through which sperm leave the epididymis during ejaculation Seminal Vesicles – add nutrient rich fluid for sperm Prostate: o Golf ball size o Produces a milky alkaline fluid – possibly to help with proper function of the flagella Bulbourethral Gland/ Cowper’s Gland– produces a mucous fluid to act as lubrication during ejaculation. FEMALE= vagina ? Folds of tissue that are covered with hair on the outside ?
Smooth and moist inside folds ? Located between bladder and rectum ? Capable of great expansion to allow fetal development ? Lined with endometrium ? lead from uterus to ovaries ? Have fimbriae extensions at end by ovaries to catch released eggs. <> ? Ova production begins about the 7th week of embryonic development ? At birth each ovary contains approx. 1 million follicles with the potential to develop into eggs ? Approx. 80% of follicles degenerate by puberty leaving about 400,000 ? Only about 400 eggs will mature throughout reproductive life of female • Why do so many sperm not survive?
So many sperm don’t survive because of their short lifep and the environments each individual sperm encounters after entering the vagina. For example: the vagina is acidic so approx. 25% of the sperm die immediately upon entry. Once the environment becomes fluid again, the sperm remain viable for 28-48 hours before sperm run out of nutrients and starve. The female defense system attacks sperm as foreign invaders. And the sperm must make it through the cervix (usually thick mucus) which secretes a protein fluid called musin. Once it gets through the cervix, it enters the uterus moving through the uterine cavity.
The flagella of the sperm must work harder to go up the fallopian tube (swimming against current) finally reaching the EGG! 60% of sperm is less than perfect. • What is the difference between sperm and semen? Sperm is the male sex cell of semen that fertilizes an egg, whereas semen is the combination of fluids and sperm that leave the penis via the urethral opening. Semen is sperm mixed with nutritional fluid from the seminal vesicles, alkaline fluid from the prostate, and mucus from the Bulbourethral/cowper’s gland • Be able to identify and label the male anatomy. [pic] Be able to identify and label the female anatomy. [pic] [pic] • What are the male and female sex organs? Know the composition/purpose of each and be able to compare the two. MALE= penis Penis – composed of 3 cylinders of erectile tissue: o Corpus cavernosa – 2 cylinders on dorsal part of the penis o Corpus Spongiosum – surrounds the urethra; distal end is enlarged to form the glans penis Scrotum – thin membranous sac that houses testes. Testes o Produce approx. 200-300 million sperm/ 24hrs in each testes o Approx. 700 ft. of seminiferous tubules – 80% of testes. Essential male organs o Proper function is dependent on temperature Epididymis: o Located over the top back portions of the testis o Store immature sperm Vas Deferens – Tube through which sperm leave the epididymis during ejaculation Seminal Vesicles – add nutrient rich fluid for sperm Prostate: o Golf ball size o Produces a milky alkaline fluid – possibly to help with proper function of the flagella Bulbourethral Gland/ Cowper’s Gland– produces a mucous fluid to act as lubrication during ejaculation. FEMALE= vagina ? Folds of tissue that are covered with hair on the outside ?
Smooth and moist inside folds to cap the ends of the corpus carvernosa (similar tissue to that of the corpus spongiosum in males) ? Located between bladder and rectum ? Capable of great expansion to allow fetal development ? Lined with endometrium ? lead from uterus to ovaries ? Have fimbriae extensions at end by ovaries to catch released eggs. <> ? Ova production begins about the 7th week of embryonic development ? At birth each ovary contains approx. 1 million follicles with the potential to develop into eggs ? Approx. 0% of follicles degenerate by puberty leaving about 400,000 ? Only about 400 eggs will mature throughout reproductive life of female • What is the purpose of each reproductive structure covered in class? Answered in the above question. • Know all of the glands and organs involved in the endocrine system along with their functions • Consists of glands that produce hormones to regulate: growth, reproduction, metabolism, personality, etc. • Hormones – highly specialized chemicals that act as messages to organs; carried in the blood stream throughout the body. Pituitary gland (Hypophysis) – produces growth hormone and regulatory hormones • Thyroid – produces thyroxin which regulates metabolic rate • Hypothalamus – secretes regulatory hormones • Parathyroid – regulates calcium and phosphate levels in blood • Adrenal gland – produces corticosteroids, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine • Pancreas – islets of Langerhans produce insulin; rest of pancreas produces digestive enzymes • Ovaries – Estrogen, progesterone • Testes – testosterone • How many eggs are matured during one female cycle?
Females are born with 1,000 eggs and over a lifetime only 400 eggs reach maturation, but during ONE female cycle a SINGLE is matured and sent out to be fertilized. • How long is an average female cycle? An average female cycle = 28 days • Know the phases of the menstrual cycle in detail. o Average of 28 day cycle o Involves release of mature egg, shedding of old endometrium and formation of new endometrium o Follicular phase – first 14 days of cycle ? 1st week: old endometrium is shed (menstruation); follicular development begins ? nd week: formation of new endometrium; follicular development continues ? Ovulation: release of mature ovum around the 14th day; egg has approx. 24 hrs. to join sperm. o Luteal phase – endometrium continues to prepare for possible implantation of embryo o If implantation does not occur by the end of the 28 day (average) cycle then menstrual bleeding occurs and the cycle begins again. • Know the embryonic and fetal development discussed in the power point, video, and in your book. -Blastocyst – 5 days after conception -Implantation occurs within 10 days -4 weeks = arm buds, beginning of eyes 5 weeks = nose -6 weeks = leg buds embryo< 0. 5 inches -7 weeks = ? inch; clearly defined fingers, visible internal organs and eye lenses -8 weeks = well defined fingers and toes -10 weeks = embryo=fetus; can move; approx. 2 inches long -14 weeks = fetus can bring hands together and suck thumb -15 weeks = sensory organs are almost complete -16 weeks = can actively turn -Fetal respiration = baby “breathes” fluid in and out. • What is spermatogenesis? The production of sperm begins between the ages of 9-12 • Know the structure of sperm and how/where they form and develop. pic] -Sperm is manufactured in the testes (testicle) in the seminiferous tubules. -Immature sperm are stored in the epididymis until ready for ejaculation. -Haploid cells (23 chromosomes) -Comprised of general three parts: headpiece, midpiece, flagellum • What is the average production rate (may be a range) of sperm in a healthy male? More than 400 billion sperm is produced in lifetime and 200-300 million sperm produced daily. In normal semen, there is approx. 39 million (range from 33-46 mil) sperm/ejaculation

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